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Ref No IE TCD MS 50
Former Shelf Marks Lyon: A.4.20
Bernard: 482
Foley: H.65
c1670: K.1.29
Title Ricemarch Psalter
Creation Dates [c1079]
Extent And Medium Parchment, 159 leaves
Level Of Description Collection
Admin Biographical History On the basis of the calculations in (5), Lawlor would date the codex between 1076 and 1081, and he conjectures 1079: see his discussion on xxi-xxii and 112-113.
Scope And Content The Ricemarch (Rycymarch) Psalter and accompanying texts (part of the codex is published by H. Delehaye in 'Analecta Bollandiana' 32 [1913] 379-407, and part by H.J. Lawlor, 1, Henry Bradshaw Society, (London, 1914); see also M. Lapidge in 'Studia Celtica' 8/9 [1973/74] 68-106 and M. Lapidge and R. Sharpe, 'A Bibliography of Celtic-Latin Literature 400-1200', Royal Irish Academy Dictionary of Medieval Latin from Celtic Sources Ancillary Publications 1, (Dublin, 1985), no. 123):

Folios 2v-3v: (1) Hieronymus (attrib.), Letter to Chromatius and Heliodorus (ed. Delehaye 379-380, ed. Lawlor p. l; edd. H. Quentin and H. Delehaye in Acta Sanctorum Nov. 2.2 [1931] 1-2, with use of TCD MS 50; E. Dekkers and A. Gaar, 'Clauis Patrum Latinorum', second edition, ('Sacris Erudiri' 3), (Steenbrugge, 1961), no. 633): Choromatio (!) et Eliodoro sanctis episcopis Hieronimus presbiter. Constat dominum nostrum omni die - esse sublimes. 1, 2 originally blank, 1v blank.

Folios 3v-5: (2) Hieronymus (attrib.), Breuiarium Apostolorum (ed. Delehaye 380-381, ed. Lawlor 2-3; edd. Quentin and Delehaye t.c. 3-4, with use of TCD MS 50): Simon qui interpretatur obediens - cuius natiuitas v kl. Nouembris.

Folios 5v-25v: (3) Martyrology, basically that of Ps. Jerome (ed. Delehaye 381-407, ed. Lawlor 4-28; cf. edn. of Quentin and Delehaye t.c. 7-664, with selected readings from TCD MS 50 cited): viii kl. Ianuarii. Natiuitas domini nostri Ihesu Christi - Natiuitas domini nostri Ihesu Christi. The martyrology, which appears to have been derived from an Irish exemplar (Lawlor p. xxxiv) includes: 'Mancheani' (on 6), 'Fursi' (7), 'Bri(gide)' (8), 'Patrici' (11), 'Paterni' (12v), 'Lasreani' (13), 'Columcille' (15v), 'Toriaui' (17), 'Flaub' (17, 18v), 'Columbani' (21v), 'Iudicaili' (25). St David is not listed.

Folios 25v-30v: (4)-(12) Calendar tables: (4) day-letters of the year and the age of moon in days at Quadragesima, Easter, Ascension, Pentecost, Sexagesima, and Septuagesima (25v); (5) solar concurrents, golden numbers, epacts (on 26); (6)(7) yearly lunations (26v-27); (8)(9) dates for first Sunday in Lent and for Easter day: (8) deals with usual years, (9) with leap years (27v-28); (10) course of moon through the signs of zodiac in twelve lunations (28v); (11) the letters, in Greek, which are to be used in the margins of a calendar and also information on lunations and golden numbers (29v-30): this section is of special interest since it contains most of the Greek alphabet as written by an 11th-century Welsh scribe; (12) moon’s stages on given days, with lunation letters (30v). For a detailed description of these tables see Lawlor 112-117.

Folios 31-34v: (13)-(23) Prefaces to the psalter:

Folios 31-32: (13) Hieronymus, Epistola 106.1-2 ('Biblia Sacra' 10, (Rome, 1953), 8-9; F. Stegmüller, 'Repertorium Biblicum Medii Aeui', (Madrid, 1950-1980), number 451): Dilectissimis fratribus Somme et Fertelle. Vere in uobis - auctoritate discordet. Finit.

Folios 32rv: (14) ocus (!) istius libri psalmorum totam Iudeam esse affirmant - indicare noscuntur.

Folios 32v-33: (15) A tempore Dauid usque ad tempus Nabucodonosor - titulum uniuscuiusque psalmi intellectus aptissimum conscripsit atque notauit.

Folios 33: (16) Cf. Hieronymus, In Psalmos praef. ('Biblia Sacra' t.c. 5; F. Stegmüller, 'Repertorium Biblicum Medii Aeui', number 443): In Ebreica autem ueritate iste liber hoc titulo prescribitur Sephearthealim - hymnus interpretatur.

Folio 33v: (17) ironimus (!) diuine scripturae interpres atque uariarum linguarum - obseruare non posse.

Folio 33v. (18) Plerique etiam auctorum dicunt quod de psalmis tituli - ad canendum deputemus.

Folio 34: (19) Hieronymus, In Psalmos praef. ('Biblia Sacra' t.c. 4-5; F. Stegmüller, 'Repertorium Biblicum Medii Aeui', number 443): cio inquit (Hieronimus added) quosdam - unum adserimus.

Folio 34: (20) Hieronymus, In Epist. Ad Ephesianos 5.19 ('Patrologia Latina' 26:528): mnus est qui fortitudinem et mansuetudinem - spirituale conuiuium canit.

Folios 34rv: (21) anticum est uox cantantis in letitiam - organi modulantis imitatur.

Folio 34v: (22) respiter Hieronimus trium linguarum peritus ex Ebreo in Latinum - nomina commotentur.

Folio 34v: (23) This prol. ed. Lawlor 119, cf. Hieronymus, Breuiarium In Psalmos prol. ('Patrologia Latina' 26:824): Tribus autem linguis iste liber sic nominatus, nabla Ebreice - organum Latine.

Folios 35-158: (24) Psalter according to the Hebrews (ed. H. de Sainte-Marie, 'Collectanea Biblica Latina' 11, (Rome, 1954); Lawlor 31-51 gives a collation of this Trinity College Dublin text): Beatus uir - omne quod spirat laudat dominum. Celtic psalters were normally Gallican, and thus the psalms in TCD MS 50 and Edinburgh University MS 56 are extraordinary in presenting the version according to the Hebrews (C.P. Finlayson, 'Celtic Psalter', (Amsterdam, 1962), v; Finlayson reproduces with plates Edinburgh University MS 56). According to Lawlor p. xxxv, the psalter in TCD MS 50 is closely related to a 10th-century Augiensis but is not a copy of it. L. Bieler ('Litterae Textuales, Texts & Manuscripts: Essays Presented to G.I. Lieftinck' 2, (Amsterdam, 1972), 12 n.3) declares that the Ricemarch psalms were probably copied from an Irish exemplar.

Folio 158v: (25) Ricemarch (Rycymarch), Verses about the psalter in the codex (the verses ed. Lawlor 29, ed. Lapidge t.c. 88): Filius Isai Dauid cui patria Bethlem - pictura sub alis. Ricemarch reports that the psalter was written for him by a scribe Ithael and that the large letters in the psalter were executed by his own brother John: Ergo mihi, nostra qui dicor gente Ricemarch, Sulgeni genitus, necnon Iohannis adelphus, Ithael asscripsit, studium cui aurum inaurat. Psalmorum proceres depinxit rite Iohannes. Ricemarch (1056-1099) was a son of Sulien bishop of St David’s in Wales (1072-1078 and again 1080-1085). Ricemarch himself was bishop of St David’s 1088-1096. Cambridge Corpus Christi College 199, containing Augustine’s De Trinitate, was written between l085 and 1091 by John (see W.M. Lindsay, 'Early Welsh Script', (Oxford, 1912), 32-33; Lawlor t.c. xiv; and M.R. James, 'Catalogue of Manuscripts in Corpus Christi College Cambridge' l [1912] 481-483). A third codex associated with Ricemarch is the copy of Macrobius’ In Somnium Scipionis in British Library Cotton Faustina C.l, with the verse lament of Ricemarch (see Lindsay o.c. 33-34, Lawlor t.c. xiv).

Folio 159: (26) Ps. Rufinus, In Psalmum lxxv ('Patrologia Latina' 21:641): Beda. Sunt superscriptionum omnium tituli diuersi nam preter uos qui auctorum suorum nominibus - de deo, adepta cognitio. 159v originally blank.
Phyiscal Description Dimensions: 160 x 105 (c120 x c60)

Layout: Normally 24 lines. Ruling by hard point.

Script: Insular minuscule. (1)-(24) in the hand of Ithael, except for the greater part of 55rv (Lawlor xix-xx). (25) is probably the autograph of Ricemarch, (26) is by still another hand.

2nd fo.: perseuerantie sue.
Custodial History 1 has (a) 'Psalterium Ieronimi' (13th century), (b) an erased inscription. 2 has (a) 'G. Bedelli'. William Bedell was provost of Trinity College Dublin 1627-1629 and bishop of Kilmore 1629-1641. Bedell lent the codex to James Ussher c1624,
and Ussher mentions the codex in his writings (see Lawlor o.c. l:xxii nn. 3, 5), but Ussher may have returned it to Bedell, who requested it in 1628 (see ib. xxii-xxiii). Bedell, however, bequeathed in his will the codex to Ussher (cf. ib. xxiii). It is unknown how Bedell acquired the book in the first place. He mentions the book in a letter to Sir Robert Cotton (10 December 1627): see H. Ellis, 'Original Letters of Eminent Literary Men', Camden Society, (London, 1843), 135-136. 2 has (b) 'Iohannes Goldwellus. Summum ius summa iniuria' (by ultraviolet; cf. Cicero, De Officiis 1.33; 16th-century hand). 2v has 1.2 / SR (mediaeval). 76 has a series consisting of the alphabet, a few symbols, and amen (partly scrubbed out; 15/16th-century hand). 159v has a short mediaeval pen-trial. On the use of the codex by 19th-century scholars, notably J.O. Westwood, J.T. Gilbert, and Henry Bradshaw, see Lawlor o.c. l:xxiv. Bradshaw paginated and signatured the codex during his visit to Dublin in 1877, and his transcript of the martyrology is among his papers in Cambridge University Library (Lawlor o.c. 1:xxiv).
Collation Analysis i-iii(8) iv(10) (lacks 7) v(12) (lacks 3, 5, l2) vi(10) (lacks 4, 9) vii(10) (lacks 4,9) viii(10) (lacks 2) ix(12) (lacks 2, 4, 8) x-xiii(8) xiv(12) (lacks 9,10) xv(8) xvi(10) (lacks 4, 8) xvii-xix(8)+1.
Decoration Although John is mentioned in (25) as the artist of the large initials of the psalter alone (even as Ithael is given credit for copying only this text), there is no doubt that he executed the large initials elsewhere throughout the codex. These large initials, very skilfully produced, almost always display one or more zoomorphic heads, in wide variety of positions (though all the heads are quite alike in themselves). The heads are attached to serpentine vine-like black stems which often curl and interlace. The spaces within the drawings are filled with pale green, yellow, and red; and red dots trace the outlines of these initials. Spaces left for initials remain blank on 31-32, 33v-34v, and colour was not applied to the initials on 32v-33. On 35 (Ps. 1: Beatus), large initial with zoomorphic head, green serpentine body, talons (red touches) and nearby another animal head. Close to the talons of the first beast is an interlace pattern. Most of the page is framed with border containing an interlace motif of vine (partly red) on black ground. Similar pages grace the beginning of Ps. 51 (Quid gloriaris) on folio 76 and the beginning of Ps. 101 (Domine exaudi) on 118. The Beatus page and numerous other pages with initials are reproduced by Lawlor in his volume 2 (1914); cf. also the rather similar initials in Finlayson o.c. [on (24)]. The words of these pages are in capitals, with pale green bands between the lines of words. Smaller initials are filled with yellow, or green, or red, or with yellow and red, or with red and green. Headings naming the months, in the martyrology, are red on yellow ground. Green, red, and yellow are employed in the tables. Verbal run-overs in the martyrology are distinguished usually by bars of yellow, or of yellow and green, or of red and yellow, but sometimes by a zoomorphic head (yellow touches); and on 22 a hand and wing (each with yellow touches) are likewise used. The 16/17th-century hand which divided Psalm 9 (on 40) by “10’us secundum Hebraeos”, numbered each of the psalms.
Binding Note TCD MS 50 had been bound in blind-tooled calf (rubbing of this binding on paper attached to the end of the codex); present binding by Roger Powell (1963) of wooden boards and white alum-tawed pigskin. Powell’s detailed account of the earlier binding and of his own rebinding is inserted in typescript at the end of the codex.
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Language Latin
Public Note For TCD MS 50 see also Lindsay o.c. [on (25)] 32-40, pl. 17; James o.c. [on (25)] 483; Delehaye t.c. [sub init.] 369-378; Lawlor o.c. [sub init.], 2 volumes, the 2nd offering 86 plates which reproduce pages in the codex; J.F. Kenney, 'The Sources for the Early History of Ireland: Ecclisiastical', (Dublin, 1929), repr. (Dublin, 1979), no. 508; W.H. Frere et all, 'Bibliotheca Musico-Liturgica', Plainsong and Medieval Music Society, (1901-1932), 2 volumes, no. 742; A. Souter, 'Pelagius’s Expositions of Thirteen Epistles of St Paul', Texts and Studies 9.1, (Cambridge, 1922), 285; Quentin and Delehaye t.c. [on (1)] xii; J.E. Lloyd in 'The National Library of Wales Journal' 2 (1941-1942) 4-5; N. Denholm-Young, 'Handwriting in England and Wales', (Cardiff, 1954), pl. 7 (from Lawlor) with discussion on facing page; N.K. Chadwick in 'Studies in the Early British Church', (Cambridge, 1958), 126, 169-171; R.O. Dougan, 'A Descriptive Guide to Twenty Irish Manuscripts in the Library of Trinity College Dublin', second edition, (Dublin, 1958), no. 9; Bieler t.c. [on (24)] 12 n.3, in 'Scriptorium' 13 (1959) 119 and ib. 17 (1963) 150;B. Lambert, 'Bibliotheca Hieronymiana Manuscripta', Instrumenta Patristica 4, (Steenbrugge, 1959-1972), 4 volumes, nos. 0, 497, 640, 641.1,2; P. Grosjean in 'Analecta Bollandiana' 79 (1961) 321; Finlayson o.c. [on (24)] v, vii n.4, xix, xxxi; B. de Gaiffier in 'Analecta Bollandiana' 81 (1963) 96-97; H. Rochais, 'L’Exemplar du martyrologe cistercien', La documentation cistercienne 7, (Rochefort, 1972), 42, 57-58; M. McNamara in 'Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy' 73 Sec. C (1973) 244-245; Lapidge l.c. [sub init.]; D.N. Dumville in 'Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies' 27 (1977) 248 n.4; T. Pritchard in 'Scriptorium' 32 (1978) 147*; J.J.G. Alexander, 'Insular Manuscripts 6th to the 9th Century', A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles 1, (London, 1978), 88-89, illustr. number 346; K. Hughes, 'Celtic Britain in the Early Middle Ages', ed. D. Dumville, (Woodbridge, 1980), 26; A. Peden in 'Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies' 1 (1981) 21, 22, 24; F. Henry and G. Marsh-Micheli, 'Studies in Early Christian and Medieval Irish Art' 2, (London, 1984), 79, 159-160, 184, with illustrs.; L.E. Boyle, 'Medieval Latin Palaeography: A Bibliographical Introduction', (Toronto, 1984), no. 310; M. Lapidge and R. Sharpe, 'A Bibliography of Celtic-Latin Literature 400-1200', Royal Irish Academy Dictionary of Medieval Latin from Celtic Sources Ancillary Publications 1, (Dublin, 1985), number 123; T.H. Ohlgren, 'Insular and Anglo-Saxon Illuminated Manuscripts: An Iconographic Catalogue c. A.D. 625 to 1100', (New York and London, 1986), number 75; B. Meehan in 'Treasures of the Library: Trinity College Dublin', (Dublin, 1986), 107, pl. 73; P. McGurk in 'Analecta Bollandiana' 104 (1986) 112-125 passim; N.R. Ker, 'Medieval libraries of Great Britain: a list of surviving books... supplement to the second edition', second edition, ed. A.G. Watson, (London, 1987) 46; L. Bieler, 'Ireland and the Culture of Early Medieval Europe' [a reprint of earlier papers by Bieler], ed. R. Sharpe, (London, 1987), XIX 12 n.3; M. McNamara in 'Irland und die Christenheit' (1987) 16, 32, 40; M.D. Reeve, review of M.L. Colker, 'Trinity College Library Dublin, Descriptive Catalogue of the Medieval and Renaissance Latin Manuscripts' in The Journal of Ecclesiastical History 45 (1994), 690; Nancy Edwards in 'From the Isles of the North: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Insular Art Held in Ulster Museum, Belfast, 7-11 April 1994', ed. Cormac Bourke, 1995, 147-155, with plates; B. Meehan, 'The Book of Durrow', (Dublin 1996), 66; M. Budny, 'Insular, Anglo-Saxon and Early Anglo-Norman Manuscript Art at Corous Christi College, Cambridge', volume 1 (of 2 volumes), (Kalamazoo, 1997), 745; D.R. Howlett, 'Cambro-Latin Compositions', (Dublin, 1998), 103-108; M. McNamara, 'The Psalms in the Early Irish Church', (Sheffield, 2000), 76-77, 104, 258; M.P. Brown, 'The Linisfarne Gospels', (London 2003), 238; W. O'Sullivan, 'Manuscripts and Palaeography' in A New History of Ireland, volume 1, ed. D. Ó Chróinín, (Oxford, 2005), 540-541. For further bibliography on TCD MS 50 see Alexander o.c. 89.
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